Most pathogenic microbes could potentially cause meningitis in the human brain. Children ages 1115 years have the second highest rate of death from bacterial meningitis caused by neisseria meningitidis. Neisseria meningitidis, meningococcal meningitis, meningococcemia invasive meningococcal disease is an acute and serious infection caused by the bacterium neisseria meningitidis. Meningococcal disease meningococcal disease is a rare, but very serious illness caused by a type of bacteria called neisseria meningitidis. Meningococcal disease 14 meningococcal disease is an acute, potentially severe illness caused by the bacterium. Neisseria meningitidis is a wellknown bacterium for causing meningitis. These tests can be useful for screening isolates to categorize them as susceptible, intermediate, resistant, or non. Neisseria meningitidis, often referred to as meningococcus, is a gram negative bacterium that can cause meningitis and other forms of meningococcal disease such as meningococcemia, a lifethreatening sepsis. Granato,t roberthoward,bernadettewilkinson, and jeffreylaser waterburyhospitalhealth center, waterbury, connecticut 06720 a maltosenegative variant of neisseria meningitidis, slaterus y, was recoveredfromapatient withmeningitis.
Information on this page has been organized into three categories. Las enfermedades producidas por esta bacteria, son las siguientes. On the one hand it is a harmless commensal bacterium exquisitely adapted to humans, and on the other hand it sometimes behaves like a ferocious pathogen causing potentially lethal disease such as sepsis and. Neisseria meningitidis w5, turkey volume 10, number 5may. Akute eitrige meningitis beim kind swiss medical forum. Pdf outbreak of meningococcal meningitis researchgate. You get it when a virus enters the body through the nose or mouth and travels. Meningococcal and pneumococcal meningitis in northern.
Meningococcal meningitis is an acute form of bacterial meningitis caused by neisseria meningitidis. Meningococcal meningitis is the most common form of n meningitidis infection. Meningitis is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges. Neisseria meningitidis is one of the major causes of meningitis in children and adolescents, but it is rarely found during the neonatal period. It can be caused by a variety of organisms that include bacteria, fungi or viruses. A prime example for such a pathogen is neisseria meningitidis. About 15% of people carry these bacteria in their throats without getting sick. Meningococcal disease can refer to any illness that is caused by a type of bacteria called neisseria meningitidis. Meningococcus, the bacterium neisseria meningitidis, which causes meningococcal meningitis in humans, who are the only natural hosts in which it causes disease.
Neisseria meningitidis georgia department of public health. However, advances have been made in our understanding of meningococcal biology and pathogenesis, global epidemiology, transmission and carriage, host susceptibility, pathophysiology, and clinical presentations. The first definitive description of the disease was by vieusseux in switzerland in 1805. Infection of the genitals can result in a purulent or puslike discharge from the. Getting vaccinated is the best way to prevent meningococcal disease. Neisseria meningitidis the meningococcus is the cause of epidemic meningitis, a fulminant sepsis meningococcemia, milder bacteremia, and, less commonly, other focal infections. Meningitis is technically an inflammation of the meninges, or the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. Laboratory methods for the diagnosis of meningitis caused by neisseria meningitidis, streptococcus pneumoniae, and haemophilus influenzae.
Globally, w5 strains are often isolated after intensive vaccination campaigns against serogroup a and c meningococci have been implemented. It can cause sepsis bloodstream infection, meningitis inflammation of the tissues that cover the brain and spinal cord, and pneumonia. Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in neisseria. Meningococcal disease wisconsin department of health services. Neisseria meningitidis is a leading cause of bacterial meningitis and sepsis in the. Neisseria meningitidis was first identified as the causative agent of bacterial meningitis by weichselbaum in 1887. Other symptoms include confusion or altered consciousness, vomiting, and an inability to tolerate light or loud noises. Neisseria meningitidis w5, turkey volume 10, number 5. Young children often exhibit only nonspecific symptoms, such as.
It is a serious condition that can be life threatening. There are more than 500,000 reported cases of meningococcal disease per year, with an estimated annual death toll of 5,000 zimmer and stephens 2004. Mortality can be very high if the infection is not treated appropriately, and longterm sequelae can be severe even in successfully managed cases. The neisseria meningitidis bacterium is usually spread through close, personal or prolonged contact with respiratory or oral secretions. The strain was serogrouped as w5 by specific antiserum difco, sparks, md in hacettepe medical school, turkey, and confirmed by the centers for disease control and prevention cdc, atlanta, ga.
Immunology and vaccinepreventable diseases pink book. The bacteria are spherical, ranging in diameter from 0. There are a number of viral and bacterial causes of meningitis, but neisseria meningitidis is the most common cause of the more serious bacterial meningitis in children who are most susceptible. Neisseria meningitidis is prevented through two types of vaccines. Meningitis caused by maltosenegative variantof neisseria. On the one hand it is a harmless commensal bacterium exquisitely adapted to humans, and on the other hand it sometimes behaves like a ferocious pathogen causing potentially lethal disease such as sepsis and acute bacterial meningitis.
Also, children ages 1623 years have the second highest rates of disease. May 30, 2018 meningococcal meningitis, caused by neisseria meningitidis, is one version for which vaccines are available. Neisseria meningitidisis an aerobic, gramnegative diplococcus that colonizes the nasopharynx of many healthy individuals. Neisseria meningitidis are bacteria that can cause meningococcal disease, a very severe form of meningitis andor blood infection. Meningococcus, an obligate human bacterial pathogen, remains a worldwide and devastating cause of epidemic meningitis and sepsis. Epidemiology of meningitis caused by neisseria meningitidis, streptococcus pneumoniae, and haemophilus influenzae. Epidemic meningitis, meningococcaemia, and neisseria. Illness believed to be meningococcal disease was first reported in the 16th century. Unlike a cold or the flu, the bacteria that cause meningitis cannot be spread by casual contact or by breathing the air where an infected person has been. Neisseria meningitidis an overview sciencedirect topics.
Epidemic meningitis, meningococcaemia, and neisseria meningitidis. Neisseria meningitidis is a gramnegative diplococcus bacterium that is responsible for endemic and epidemic meningococcal meningitis and fulminant meningococcemia munford 2001. The most common symptoms are fever, headache, and neck stiffness. The second is a vaccine against neisseria meningitidis serogroup b and is referred to as menb. Some of the most common causes of bacterial meningitis include neisseria meningitidis, streptococcus. Some of the most common bacteria known to cause meningitis are described below. Invasive neisseria meningitis facts for health professionals surveillance invasive disease caused by neisseria meningitidis includes meningitis, septicemia, and other infections.
Neisseria meningitidis haemophilus influenzae streptococcus pneumoniae streptococcus pyogenes group a strep neisseria meningitidis is immediately reportable on first knowledge or suspicion of the diagnosis due to the potential need for prophylaxis of close contacts within 24 hours of suspected diagnosis suspicion is. To describe the antimicrobial resistance profile of neisseria meningitidis isolates causing invasive disease in brazil from 2009 to 2016. Neisseria meningitidis is an exclusive human pathogen. The organism was first recognized by weichselbaum in 1887 in the spinal fluid of six patients with acute cerebrospinal meningitis. The bacterium is referred to as a coccus because it is round, and more specifically, diplococcus because of its tendency to form pairs. The epidemiology and serogroup distribution can change very quickly. During periods of endemic disease, about 10 % of the general population harbour neisseria meningitidis in the nasopharynx. Meningococcal disease wisconsin department of health. Neisseria meningitidis is a gramnegative diplococci spheres clumped in pairs bacteria. Meningococcal meningitis, caused by neisseria meningitidis, is one version for which vaccines are available. Meningitis is an inflammation of the tissue that covers the brain and spinal cord that can be caused by several different types of, as well as viruses and fungibacteria. Morphology capsulated gram negative cocci in pairs diplococci 0. Meningococcal meningitis, meningococcal infection, cerebrospinal fever, meningococcemia characteristics. Quick medical attention is extremely important if meningococcal disease is suspected.
You get it when a virus enters the body through the nose or mouth and travels to the brain. Meningococcal meningitis, meningococcal infection, cerebrospinal fever. Csf culture grew neisseria meningitidis in 24 hours. Neisseria of the eleven species of neisseria that colonize humans, only two are pathogens. Even if treated quickly, meningococcal disease can cause longterm problems or be deadly. Who laboratory methods for the diagnosis of meningitis. Pdf metabolism and virulence in neisseria meningitidis. Meningococcal disease neisseria meningitidis disease. About 10% of adults are carriers of the bacteria in their nasopharynx. Meningococcal disease is a contagious infection spread by close contact, such as living with or kissing an infected person. While viral meningitis is more common, bacterial meningitis can be more dangerous if it.
Neisseria meningitidis the meningococcus causes significant morbidity and mortality in children and young adults worldwide through epidemic or sporadic meningitis andor septicemia. Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges, the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. Neisseria meningitidis material safety data sheet infectious substances section i infectious agent name. Chemoprophylaxis of healthcare workers exposed to neisseria meningitidis 11 recommendations for the management of laboratory worker exposed to n. A longstanding question in infection biology addresses the genetic basis for invasive behavior in commensal pathogens. Pdf meningococcal disease is a severe illness with high case fatality 510% and frequent sequelae. Inflammation and swelling of the meninges causes most of the problems, but the bacteria can also enter the bloodstream. Most carrier isolates are shown to lack capsule production.
Neisseria meningitidis meningococcal disease 1 neisseria meningitidis meningococcal disease i. One w5 isolate from an asymptomatic carrier was reported in a child in 2001. Neisseria meningitidis about neisseria meningitidis is a bacterium hosted only by humans and is a leading cause of bacterial meningitis in the united states. This pathogen may also cause overwhelming sepsis, purpura fulminans, or rarely benign meningococcemia. The first is a meningococcal conjugate vaccine which protects against 4 serogroups a, c, w, and y and is referred to as mcv4. The bacterium neisseria meningitidis, also called meningococcus, causes meningococcal meningitis. K v chakradhar assistant professor department of microbiology nriims 2. This patients vaccination certificate confirmed that he had. Neisseria meningitidis untypeable was isolated from blood and tissue cultures.
Microbial and host factors combine to allow this organism to invade the bloodstream and get into the central nervous system, causing severe sepsis and meningitis. The incidence of invasive meningococcal disease in. Who practical guidelines, control of epidemic meningococcal disease. Here, we describe a neonate with meningococcal sepsis who was admitted to the hospital on postnatal day 10, and we discuss the clinical features of neonatal infection with n. Meningitis and septicemia constitute the majority of. Bakterielle eitrige meningoenzephalitis deutsche gesellschaft fur. In children and teens, meningococcus is the most common cause of bacterial meningitis. Laboratory methods for the diagnosis of meningitis caused by neisseria meningitidis, streptococcus pneumoniae, and haemophilus influenzae w h o m a n ua l, 2n d e d i t ion1 1 the first edition has the who reference whocdscsredc99. Neisseria meningitidis, often referred to as meningococcus, is a gramnegative bacterium that can cause meningitis and other forms of meningococcal disease such as meningococcemia, a lifethreatening sepsis. Chapter 2 epidemiology of meningitis caused by neisseria.1394 608 1108 65 126 1268 1118 1239 829 82 893 912 838 739 1426 849 813 933 1374 1622 1378 628 1378 180 960 332 1649 1198 761 1021 539 781 853 502 1480 1321 74 1251 1405 1426 710 1322 804 971 1376 1098 1032 209