The question of freedom within the horizon of the iranian. A video clip from the two hour movie, the story of mashrooteh. The supplementary fundamental laws of october 7, 1907. Such a revolution was the first in middle east and opened a way for change in persia and it also formed the basis for the modern era practices in persia iran afary janet, pp 23. The constitution of the islamic republic of iran advances the cultural, social, political, and economic institutions of iranian society based on islamic principles and norms, which represent an. Irans 1906 constitution and its supplement tavaana.
Shia islam was declared the official state religion as early as in 1501 during the reign of the safavid dynasty and. The iranian constitutional revolution 1906 only clear causation from russia to from psc 1001 at george washington university. About the iranian constitution revolution which took place about a century ago. State, power and longterm trends in the iranian constitution of. The constitution has been called a hybrid of theocratic and democratic elements. In 1906, the iranian prodemocracy movement demanded and won the countrys firstever constitution, parliament, and elections. The constitutional revolution in persia 1906 history of islam.
Prelude to revolution previously come together in the constitutional revolution of 190511. Charter on august 5, 1906 bythe people s rebellion. Iran s first constitution, which established the electoral system, charter of rights, and overall system of governance. Politics and the state in the islamic republic by asghar schirazi. On october 17th, 1907 it drafted and ratified the constitutional amendments. Constitutional revolution iran oxford islamic studies. The constitution of the islamic republic of iran sets forth the cultural, social, political, and economic institutions of iranian society on the basis of islamic principles and norms, which represent the earnest aspiration of the islamic ummah. The new constitution was to guarantee that the monarchy was abolished and the islamic republic system of government was enforced in its place. Eram garden, built during the qajar era is an example of persian architecture and. The iranian constitutional revolution was the twentieth centurys first such political. He is credited with the creation of the iranian constitution, and often wrongly credited with the rise of the persian constitutional revolution. This aspiration was exemplified by the nature of the great islamic revolution. Significant amendments were adopted on 28 july 1989. Between the establishment of the islamic republic of iran and the final ratification of the constitution, the iranian debate centered on two fundamental issues in particular.
A few countries including canada, israel, and the uk have no single constitution document, but have various written and unwritten acts, statutes, common laws, and practices that, when taken together, describe a body of fundamental principles or established. Irans 1906 constitution foundation for iranian studies. Now the constitution of the islamic republic, as the announcement of the structure and political, social, cultural and economic relationships within society, must guide the way towards the consolidation of the foundations of islamic government, and produce the design for a new order of government in substitution for the old idolatrous order. First term october 7th, 1906 june 23rd, 1908 the most important task undertaken by the first majlis was drafting and ratification of the constitution on december 30th, 1906. The constitution of the islamic republic of iran, setting forth as it does the political, social, cultural, and economic institutions and their relations that are to exist in society, must now provide for the consolidation of the foundations of islamic government, and propose the plan of a new system of government to be erected on the ruins of. However, beginning in 1905, several factors coalesced to provide an impetus to create a constitution. Mashrutiyyat, or enghelabe mashruteh, also known as the constitutional revolution of iran, took place between 1905 and 1911. Conceived as a comparative study of four provincial cities, it seeks to break from the tehrancentered or at best the tehrantabriz myopia of other studies. After a brief sketch of the historical background, the mutual impact of islam and constitutionalism is examined by looking closely at the process of constitution making. In legislating the constitution and its supplement, the majority of the majlis believed that the main obstacle to freedom was arbitrary rule.
The background iran has the oldest constitution in asia. Jan 01, 2012 the 190607 iranian constitution and the constitutional debate on islam the 190607 iranian constitution and the constitutional debate on islam arjomand, said amir 20120101 00. The constitutional revolution in persia 1906 history. Constitutions and constitutional debates iran data portal. Khurasani understood that the constitution drafted by parliament in 19061907 was not unislamic. The government is based upon the constitution that was approved in a national referendum in december 1979. Constitution of the islamic republic of iran wikipedia. Chapter 9 the constitutional revolution 1906 09 during the constitutional revolution a coalition of bazaaris, religious elite oloma, and iranian intelligentsia mobilized supporters during a series of symbolic protests bast throughout 1905 1906 that led to the establishment of the first iranian constitution. It divides into five chapters with many articles that developed over several years. Constitution of iran constitutional background the former monarchy and the constitution of 1906 were abolished by the revolution of february 1979. Yet despite the international attention receives, iran defies straightforward characterisation and. The constitutional revolution of iran in 1906 resulted in a constitution that established a parliament and a constitutional monarchy. The iranian constitution revolution which led to the formation of iranian parliament took place in a span of five years between the years 1906 to the year 1911. Why did 1906 iranian constitutionalists use the belgian.
Preamble to the 1979 iranian constitution hanover college. Constitution of the islamic republic of iran wikisource. Three groups of persons participated in the movement that culminated in 1906 in the granting of the constitution by a reluctant shah. Despite in the classical shiite jurisprudence that waging offensive jihad, or holy war, is an exclusive right of the infallible imam, khomeini believed that the shiite jurist had the authority to order it. The iranian constitution 51 articles in the funda mental law of 1906 and 107 articles in the supple mentary law of 1907was from the beginning an uneasy compromise between secular and religious interests. Iranian constitution comprised of the fundamental laws december 6, 1906 and the supplementary fundamental laws oct 7, 1907 explicitly checked the power of the shah. Revolution of 19061911 put an end to the rule of the qajar dynasty, but it also put into question the idea of tyranny. Constitution of the islamic republic of iran foundation for.
The fundamental law of persia promulgated in the reign of the late muzaffaruddin shah and ratified by him on dhulqada 14. This aspiration was exemplified by the nature of the great islamic revolution of iran, and by the course of the. In this revolution azeri people and political figures like satar khan wanted iran to adopt constitution. On 3 december 1979, almost one year after mohammad reza shah pahlavi left iran, the constitution of the islamic republic of iran replaced the monarchical constitution of 1906. Such narrative, as elisabeth edwards puts it, is constructed through, on the one hand, honorific portraits of leaders and great men. Two major events marked the judicial history of iran during this period. Constitutional revolution iran oxford islamic studies online.
The united states has a written constitution, but is both a federal state and a republic rather than a constitutional monarchy. The constitution of 1906 until the twentieth century, iran lacked a constitution. Constitutional revolution iranian history britannica. During the revolution of 1979 a new constitution was promulgated.
The place of shii clerics in the first iranian constitution. The constitutional revolution in persia was the first mass movement of the 20 th century in the islamic world. Religious issues in the iranian constitution jerzy nikolajew 1oduction. Celebrating the constitutional revolution of 19051911 and. Iran between islamic nationalism and secularism joins the sophisticated recent studies of the iranian constitutional revolution of 1906 and explores an entirely new aspect of this event. With respect to the islamic content of the iranian revolution, which was a movement for the. Efforts toward satisfactory reform were continually stifled, however, amid reemerging social tensions as well as foreign intervention from russia, the united kingdom, and, later, the united states. The causes of the constitutional revolution in iran.
He is credited with the creation of the iranian constitution, and often wrongly credited with the rise of the persian constitutional revolution which took place immediately after his death. The iranian constitution of 1979 is unique is a sense that the framers of the constitution frequently referred the verses of holy koran in support of setting the provisions in constitutional. The constitution of the islamic republic of iran is a declaration of the social, cultural, political, and economic foundations of the iranian society based on islamic principles and norms that re. Exporting the revolution in irans constitution and the mahdi. Democracy and lawfulness in the iranian constitutional revolution.
Iran constitution of 1906 wikisource, the free online. The iranian constitutional revolution 1906 only clear. The ensuing grand and bloody revolution of the muslim. During the first constitutional period august 1906 d june 1908, the major concern of the first majlis was to establish the rule of law. A comparative overview of the iranian constitutions of 1906 07 and 1979. Ayatollah ruhollah khomeini 19791989 ayatollah ali khamenei since 1989 the most important figure in the iranian political system is the valiye faqih, an expert in religious law, who is referred to in the constitution as the supreme leader rahbar of the islamic revolution. There is also a quick guide to the ip law of iran downloadable from the site in pdf which. Modern intellectual and political history of the middle east. This republican constitution replaced the 1906 constitution, which, with its provisions for a shah to reign as head of state, was the earliest constitution in the middle east. Iran islamic republic of s constitution of 1979 with amendments through 1989. The constitution of islamic republic of iran iran chamber. Sep 21, 2019 the constitution of the islamic republic of iran advances the cultural, social, political, and economic institutions of iranian society based on islamic principles and norms, which represent an honest aspiration of the islamic ummah.
Iranian constitutional revolution flashcards quizlet. Interestingly, it was based on the belgian constitution. Irans 1906 constitution constitution and its supplement the fundamental law of persia promulgated in the reign of the late muzaffaruddin shah and ratified by him on dhulqada 14, a. Of course, there is no written constitution for either england proper or the united kingdom, so using it as a basis for a written constitution is substantially more work. The constitution of 1906 included all the following features except.
The following supplementary laws were ratified by his successor, the now deposed shah, mu. Preamble to the 1979 iranian constitution original electronic texts at the international constitutional law web site. Article 19 all people of iran, whatever the ethnic group or tribe to which they belong, enjoy equal rights. Constitutional revolution during the early 1900s the only way to save country from government corruption and foreign manipulation was to make a written code of laws. Refworld constitution of the islamic republic of iran. Ethnic and religious minorities recent developments on october 23, 2008, asma jahangir, a u. Iran s 1906 constitution constitution and its supplement the fundamental law of persia promulgated in the reign of the late muzaffaruddin shah and ratified by him on dhulqada 14, a. Ahmad kasravi s history of the iranian constitutional revolution chronicles this event and the ensuing struggles. This sentiment caused the constitutional revolution. Keywords constitutional law in the middle east, religion and democracy in iran, iranian constitutional revolution.
There had been a series of ongoing covert and overt activities against naser odin shahs despotic rule, for which many had lost their lives. Constitution of 1906 and the supplementary fundamental law of 1907. The revolution led to the establishment of a parliament in persia iran during the qajar dynasty. The constitution, having regard to the islamic contents of the iranian revolution, which was a movement for the victory of all the oppressed over the arrogant, provides a basis for the continuation of that revolution both inside and outside the country. Constitution of the islamic republic of iran wikiquote. Irans constitutional revolution of 1906 and narratives of the. Pdf a comparative overview of the iranian constitutions. The constitution of the islamic republic of iran advances the cultural, social, political, and economic institutions of iranian society based on islamic principles and norms, which represent an honest aspiration of the islamic ummah. Celebrating the constitutional revolution of 19051911 and the constitution of 1906. Preamble the constitution of the islamic republic of iran advances the cultural, social, political, and economic institutions of iranian society based on islamic principles and norms, which represent an honest aspiration of the islamic ummah community. The most important model for the iranian constitutional laws of 19067 was the belgian constitution of 1831, although the framers of the iranian law had also consulted the french, bulgarian, and. Ap comparative government iran study guide 50 terms. The subsequent events gave a stunning display of their power and the role of religion in the politics of persia.
A comparative overview of the iranian constitutions of 1906. These events were a forerunner of the upheavals that accompanied the constitutional revolution of 1906 and the iranian revolution of 1978. The 190607 iranian constitution and the constitutional. Aug 02, 2016 mozaffar addin shah qajar 23 march 1853 3 january 1907 was the fifth qajar king of iran. The articles added to complete the fundamental laws of the persian constitution ratified by the late shahinshah of blessed memory, mu. October 1906 drafting a fundamental law constitution. First, the major procedural question was the ratification method of the constitution. The first session was held in october 1906 in the iranian history and the first constitution of the persian history was achieved as the supplementary terms of basic law were passed in this conference. Intr iran is widely recognized as a muslim state having the constitution of aconfessional nature clearly.
The 1979 constitution dates 24 oct 1979 and is in force since 3 dec 1979. The constitution of the islamic republic of iran 1989. Constitutions and constitutional debates this section contains all the modern state constitutions of iran, starting with 1906. Iran islamic republic ofs constitution of 1979 with. May 16, 2017 exporting the revolution in irans constitution.
The constitution was then ratified in a referendum held during december 23, 1979. The iranian constitutional revolution and the clerical leadership of. John okane article pdf available in iranian studies 373. Iran s constitution of 1979 differed from the constitution of 1909 because it 1979 put more emphasis on. The constitution governing movement in iran from 1905 to1911 happened in the.
The struggle for the constitution against royal despotism is a chapter in iranian history that is now seen in almost mythic terms. Apr 16, 2019 the bases of the persian constitution, namely, 9. Mozaffar addin shah qajar 23 march 1853 3 january 1907 was the fifth qajar king of iran. Aug 15th, 1906 muzzafar aldin shah issues royal proclamation declaring the creation of a majlis. Irans 1906 constitution and its supplement irans first constitution, which established the electoral system, charter of rights, and overall system of governance. The empires fundamental laws were amended in 1906 to take account of the duma. Constitutional revolution iran iranian revolution, 1905 11, caused by dissatisfaction with economic stagnation, influence of western power, and results of the russojapanese war of 1904 05 and the russian revolution of 1905.
Unanimously, the iranian people declared their final and firm decision, in the referendum on the islamic republic, to bring about a new political system, that of the islamic republic. History of the iranian constitutional revolution, vol. The first group was the small, educated class that for at least75 years had been exposed to and influenced by european political and social thought. It brought to the surface all the political and social currents that have shaped islamic history in the last centurynationalism, panislamism, the role of the ulema, international economic penetration, colonialism, foreign intrigue and. The constitution of the islamic republic of iran was adopted by referendum on 2 and 3 december 1979, and went into force replacing the constitution of 1906.
Fundamental laws, 1906, laws promulgated by the russian emperor nicholas ii, ostensibly to carry out the governmental reforms promised in his earlier october manifesto q. In 1906, it forced the shah to grant iran a constitution and soon a parliament majlis was elected both firsts in the muslim world. Iran constitution of 1906 wikisource, the free online library. Once, this revolution was moving forward iran social, economic, and political changes was taken place.260 1467 99 97 805 461 598 1115 725 1531 772 685 401 1464 975 393 525 1505 574 1203 1603 1032 1523 1251 920 571 1142 475 984 1216 818 155 835 724 1286